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The principle of ultrasonic ranging

Views: 14     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-03-04      Origin: Site

Ultrasonic ranging is a technology that uses sound waves to determine the distance between two objects. It has become an essential tool in various industries, including automotive, healthcare, and robotics. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive explanation of the principle of ultrasonic ranging and its applications.


What is Ultrasonic Ranging?


Ultrasonic ranging is a technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to determine the distance between two objects. It works by transmitting an ultrasonic wave from a transducer and measuring the time it takes for the wave to bounce back after hitting an object. The time it takes for the wave to return is used to calculate the distance between the transducer and the object. There are various types of ultrasonic sensors, including single transducer sensors and dual transducer sensors.


Working Principle of Ultrasonic Ranging


The principle of ultrasonic ranging is based on the physics of sound waves. When an ultrasonic wave is transmitted from a transducer, it travels through the air and reaches an object. The wave then bounces back to the transducer, and the time it takes for the wave to return is measured. This time is used to calculate the distance between the transducer and the object.

The transducer plays an important role in ultrasonic ranging. It is responsible for both transmitting and receiving the ultrasonic wave. The transducer converts electrical signals into mechanical vibrations, which are then transmitted as ultrasonic waves. When the wave hits an object and bounces back, the transducer receives the wave and converts it back into an electrical signal.


Advantages and Limitations of Ultrasonic Ranging


Ultrasonic ranging has several advantages over other ranging technologies. It is non-contact, which means it can be used to measure the distance between objects without physically touching them. It is also accurate, providing precise measurements even over long distances.

However, ultrasonic ranging also has some limitations. It is affected by environmental factors such as temperature, air pressure, and humidity. It also cannot penetrate solid objects, meaning it cannot measure the distance to an object that is behind another object. This can limit its usefulness in certain applications.

In comparison to other ranging technologies, such as laser ranging and infrared ranging, ultrasonic ranging is relatively inexpensive and easy to implement. This makes it a popular choice for a wide range of applications.


Applications of Ultrasonic Ranging


Ultrasonic ranging is used in a variety of industries, including automotive, healthcare, and robotics. In the automotive industry, ultrasonic ranging is used for distance measurement and obstacle detection in vehicles. This allows vehicles to avoid collisions and park safely.

In the healthcare industry, ultrasonic ranging is used for non-invasive imaging and measuring the distance between internal organs. This allows medical professionals to diagnose and treat patients without the need for invasive procedures.

In the field of robotics, ultrasonic ranging is used for navigation and obstacle avoidance. Robots equipped with ultrasonic sensors can navigate complex environments and avoid obstacles, making them more effective and efficient.


The Future of Ultrasonic Ranging


The field of ultrasonic ranging is rapidly evolving, with new advancements being made all the time. In the future, it is likely that ultrasonic ranging will be integrated into even more industries and applications.

One potential future application of ultrasonic ranging is in the field of autonomous vehicles. Autonomous vehicles will require highly accurate and reliable distance measurement systems to navigate safely. Ultrasonic ranging could play a crucial role in this, providing the necessary distance measurements to allow autonomous vehicles to operate safely.

Another potential application of ultrasonic ranging is in the field of industrial automation. With the increasing demand for efficient and cost-effective automation systems, ultrasonic ranging could play a key role in providing accurate and reliable measurements for industrial robots.


Conclusion


In conclusion, ultrasonic ranging is a technology that uses high-frequency sound waves to determine the distance between two objects. It has become an essential tool in various industries, including automotive, healthcare, and robotics. The principle of ultrasonic ranging is based on the physics of sound waves and is made possible through the use of ultrasonic transducers. While ultrasonic ranging has some limitations, it also has several advantages, making it a popular choice for a wide range of applications. The future of ultrasonic ranging looks bright, with new advancements and potential applications on the horizon.

The sound wave frequency that human ears can hear is 20HZ~20KHz. When the frequency is higher than 20KHz, the human ear cannot hear it. Therefore, we call the sound wave with a frequency higher than 20KHz "ultrasonic wave".

Ultrasound has a strong directivity and travels a long distance in the air. It will be reflected when encountering obstacles. Therefore, people often use ultrasonic wave for distance measurement.

The most commonly method of ultrasonic distance measurement is the echo detection method. The ultrasonic transmitter emits ultrasonic waves in a certain direction. At the same time as the emission, the timer starts timing. The ultrasonic receiver stops timing immediately when it receives the reflected ultrasonic waves. The propagation speed of ultrasonic waves in the air is 340m/s. According to the time recorded by the timer, the distance from the emission point to the obstacle surface can be calculated.


The main performance indicators of ultrasonic sensors include:

(1) Working frequency. The working frequency is the resonant frequency of the piezoelectric chip. When the frequency of the AC voltage applied to its two ends is equal to the resonant frequency of the chip, the output energy is the largest and the sensitivity is also the highest.

(2) Working temperature. Since the distance point of the piezoelectric material is generally relatively high, especially the ultrasonic probe for diagnosis uses a small power, so the working temperature is relatively low, and it can work for a long time without failure. The temperature of the ultrasonic probe used in medical treatment is relatively high, and a separate cooling device is required.

(3) Sensitivity. It mainly depends on the manufacturing chip itself, the electromechanical coupling coefficient is large, and the sensitivity is high.

With the rapid development of science and technology, it is not difficult for us to find the application of ultrasonic sensors. For example, the reversing radar uses ultrasonic waves to measure distance, so as to realize the function of parking and obstacle avoidance. Engineer from Manorshi recommend three ultrasonic sensors MSW-A1458H09TR, MSW-A1440H09TR, and MSW-A1840H12TR. They have good stability, high sensitivity and high precision, and have been It was well received by the market.


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